Ankle sprains are the most common sports injury.
After an initial ankle sprain, athletes are prone to re-injury of the same ankle. The risk of suffering an ankle sprain is doubled in the year following initial injury.
Common interventions aimed at preventing ankle sprains include taping, bracing, muscle strengthening, and balance training.
Taping and bracing have shown to be effective prevention for ankle sprains, however disadvantages include hindering performance, loosening with activity, and skin irritation.
A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis from La Trobe University has concluded that balance training programmes are effective at reducing the rate of ankle sprains in sporting participants, particularly those with a history of ankle sprains.
Approximately 17 sporting participants, or 13 participants with a history of ankle sprain need to undergo balance training in order to prevent one future ankle sprain.
New research, a 2015 systematic review, concludes that massage therapy reduces pain and improves function in the short term, for shoulder pain, low back pain, and osteoarthritis of the knee.
Musculoskeletal disorders cause pain and disability in a substantial proportion of the population. The most affected areas of the body are low back, neck, shoulder, and knee.
Massage therapy is one of the earliest therapeutic tools used to relieve pain, and is a widely accepted treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Massage therapy plays a major role in physiotherapy practice.
The specific mechanisms of action of massage therapy are unknown, but various physiological responses include: increased lymph flow, a parasympathetic neural response, increased clearance of blood lactate, effects on the immune system, cognition, & pain. Massage therapy seems to produce local biomechanical changes which increase neural activity at the spinal cord, affecting mood, pain perception, anxiety, and depression.